World Campaign to End War, March 18, 1924







Be among the first million to join!





(To be written by some national or world celebrity)

↑The appeal could be (for [illegible] purposes) drawn up by your League & the whole [brought] [illegible] [adapted?]↓

{This is the situation. The world has become almost one. Hence wars tend to turn to world wars. Moreover, through science, war has become unspeakable destructive. Meanwhile, within the nations, unlike of old, the method of settling differences (or acquiring wealth and achieving greatness) by brute force has come to be stigmatized by the laws and custom of all civilized peoples as criminal folly.

The question, then, is: Shall we risk another World War, far more terrible than the last, in order to be able to snatch some miserable advantage here or there, or shall we, here and now, decide to bring to an end the reign of war within the next half-a-dozen years or so? As a civilized being, your duty is clear -- alongside of others, of all classes, nations, and races -- to work with all your might for the immediate abolition of war by the means outlined in this leaflet. Remember that a seven years' concentrated and determined world attack on war is likely to achieve far more than seventy years of fitful agitation now in this and then in that country, with great wars intervening. Remember too, that because of the growing interdependence of nations, the only alternative to ending war altogether is a succession of ever fiercer world wars withering our civilization root and branch and converting flourishing countries into dreary deserts. In view of this, it is a sacred duty or patriotic men and women to encourage only peaceful national polities, it being certain that their country, in forswearing war, will but sacrifice unprofitable illusions.}

[written along the edges of the page] "Ring out the thousand years of war; Ring in the thousand years of peace." Let history speak of this Campaign as the Great Seven Years' World Campaign which {with your active help?} ended war. Cultivate the international mind; fairness and goodwill all round. "Safety first!" Only the replacement of war by organized justice can secure this. -- "Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war." [page 2]


 (This is a page to read, re-read, and discuss with your friends.)

A REMINDER. -- The recent World War blotted out more lives than all the wars of the preceding century and a half; its cost was equal to a tribute of fifty gold sovereigns from every man, woman and child on the face of the earth; and it has left the world almost sick unto death. The next World War, with its super-bombing and all-annihilating poison gases, would constitute an immensely greater disaster. What more urgent, then, than to finish with war now and thus prevent a new World War from breaking out?

But has not war always existed? Cannibalism, human sacrifices, slavery, serfdom, torture, have disappeared, save from among a few savage tribes. Why should not war? Lords had once their armed retainers, while dueling and piracy were common. This nightmare had vanished. Why should not war? Besides, with nations now interdependent and all types of violence fast disappearing, war's reason is gone.

What, however, if a country's population alarmingly increases? Colonies will not help here. Indeed, Europeans in Africa and Asia are a mere handful! Only intensive industrial development and wholesale emigration to developing countries could afford appreciable relief.

What of the wealth to be obtained through captured Colonies from investments and undertakings, or through forced concessions and spheres of influence? This is generally insignificant: it's poor business nationally and vile morals. -- How, except by war, can we defeat severe competition? In business life to meet competition by brute force would be considered dastardly and a proof of incompetence. Business efficiency, not national adventures should be encouraged. -- How else obtain an outlet to the sea? A peace régime, unlike a war régime, can satisfy this and other legitimate economic demands.

Should we not stop the persecution of at least those of our own nation, stock, or creed? Certainly; but this can be only achieved effectively by international agreements ensuring fair treatment of national, racial, and religious minorities, for instance, and [favoring] the grant of self-government to subject peoples. Entangling alliances and war preparedness are here the arch-enemy. -- What of the glory of large possessions? You surely would not class nations as great or not according to the area they cover. -- And dynastic ambitions? Everybody must condemn these, as well as condemn those statesmen, financiers, soldiers, and armament makers who, encouraged by the absence of democratic control, thoughtlessly or deliberately [labor] for war to serve their own ends.

Should we submit to injustice? The mailed fist no more guarantees the triumph of the right in international than in private life. Only a reign of law can ensure a reign of justice. -- And [defense]? The best [defense] is a world organized for peace.

Should we not prepare against possible attacks? Yes; but wits and energies should mainly go to making war preparations unnecessary. -- After all, does safety not lie in having the biggest battalions? No; for a race in armaments and towards the abyss of war is the sure result of such a policy. -- Are not military alliances helpful? Hardly; they lead to committing and condoning injustices and to counter-alliances, and thus directly to war. -- Is not an atmosphere of war bracing? Scarcely; it renders everything uncertain, everybody uneasy, depresses trade, increases taxation and poverty, kills or delays reforms, dulls reason and blunts the sense of right, sows hatred between peoples, and -- breeds wars. Besides if it rouses the noblest feelings, it also rallies the basest. -- Surely, war is not the only evil? No; but it is the most terrible and probably the greatest. -- And human nature? Human nature is for war or peace according to the stage of development of a civilization.

Why not simply limit the occasions for war? Because a war régime would create countless new occasions. -- Should not war be abolished gradually? Hand to heart, no nation will compromise its safety by compromises. -- But is the time ripe? Over-ripe. -- Can anything be done right way? Yes; countries must bind themselves to compose their disputes peaceably, be just to minorities and fair to foreign interests.

How, then, are differences between nations to be settled? Exactly as they are between individuals, towns, and sub-States [today], where reason, custom, moral appeal advantage, and courts settle differences infinitely better than the barbaric method of flying to arms. -- What, then, is to be done? To organize a great world campaign to end war, and, further, to take the steps proposed on the next page.

In turn we ask: Will you, through thoughtlessness or inaction, help on the next World War, which may (who knows?) convert your country into a heap of ruins and poison you and yours? What is needed is a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all together, to bring down the demon War.

[written along the edges of the page: "The means to do ill-deeds makes ill-deeds done." War is no more necessary between civilized nations than between civilized beings. -- War [today] is an anachronism, a relic of barbaric times. "What but endless war can war still breed?" War demands the war-spirit, and the war spirit demands war. -- Law or anarchy in international affairs? That is the question. Help to finance the building of the billions-saving, war-annihilating good [continued at the bottom of page 4] ship "PERPETUAL PEACE." (Cost: that of a single ephemeral super-dreadnought).] [page 3]


Before we ring out, with a deep sigh of relief, the thousand ages of war, and ring in, with shouts of joy, the thousand ages of peace, we must have an International Charter and a League of all the Nations. Fortunately, these two we all but possess.

THE ACTUAL LEAGUE. -- President Wilson's Covenant carries us a long way, and the actual League of Nations is not only almost universal (comprising 54 out of 63 nations), but it has gathered much experience; its representatives on the League Council and in the League Assembly have met and learned to work together, and its Secretariat, under the impeccable direction of Sir Eric Drummond, has grown increasingly expert in dealing with complicated issues. In fact, the League has not only done remarkable social work, as, for instance, in rescuing Austria from economic collapse, but it has been a priceless political instrument for preventing at least some wars and for de-electrifying to some extent the charged political atmosphere. If we could be sure, as we certainly cannot, that the next World War could not break out for a generation or more, the League, slowly but steadily gathering strength if all went well, might be able to prevent it.

THE FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES REQUIRED. -- The League, however, may grow weaker instead of stronger, and the next World War might break out in ten years or even less. For the leisurely and tragic drift towards an all-blighting new cataclysm, we must therefore substitute the immediate creation of a strongly organized and determined public opinion all over the world, which acting chiefly through its Parliaments, would provide that for the next half-dozen years or so the main energies of Governments, severally and jointly, should be devoted to drawing up the great Magna Carta of Perpetual Peace between Nations and creating the corresponding conditions, agreements, and institutions. (Two or three Governments, collaborating to this end and making active propaganda for it, would perform marvels here.) Accordingly, after a year or two of propaganda and preparations, the League Assembly (or a Special Great Council) might meet for several months together during three or four years and hammer out, with the aid of national and international Commissions, the necessary amendments to the present Covenant.

The basic amendments may be, roughly, summarized as follows: (a) A solemn and reasoned preamble declaring that the time has fully come, especially in view of the danger of catastrophic world wars, to denounce and renounce war. -- (b) This declaration would be accompanied by a series of agreements, to be embodied in national laws, that shall --

(1) remove the legitimate key causes of serious differences and of fears of war (see p. 2);

(2) extend the scope and authority of the Hague Court and of the League in order that they might be able to meet every contingency in regard to the peaceable settlement of disputes, and re-orientate Foreign Offices and schools accordingly;

(3) institute a finely-graded (non-war) system of exercising pressure, it being understood that, in conformity with international and co-State experience, even the lightest unfriendly pressure will be virtually never required;

(4) provide that all war forces and military police; departments or officials dealing with war; military training (or drill) and production of armaments; and everything else connected with warfare, be abolished unconditionally and for aye in every country, international civil commissioners watching over this at first;

(5) introduce into every country some form of broad-based control of foreign policy (by parliamentary, employers', workers', and women's group-representatives);

(6) pronounce the method of settling differences, or attaining economic or other ends, by war as barbaric, unconstitutional, and treasonable;

(7) arrange for the Assembly to meet during at least two consecutive months each year and for its acting for at least six weeks as a Parliament promoting international [cooperation] and preventing as well as removing international difficulties;

(8) decide on any other measures necessary for the swift [dispatch] of war and its younger brother, the fear of war.

THE REFORMED LEAGUE. -- The focal point of the reformed League will be its utter repudiation and complete exclusion of war, it's effectiveness in preventing and in fairly settling international disputes, and its widely extending international [cooperation], thereby benefitting all nations, satisfying common interests, and forging between the peoples bonds of lasting friendship.

[written along the edges of the page: For precarious special alliances, substitute a solid world alliance. Civilization has become one: let the nations, then, turn from war and concentrate on furthering their many common interests and ideals. Security, independence, [honor], are empty words, save where law rules. "Weak was the old world, wearily war-fenced; out of its ashes, strong as the morning, springeth the new." [page 4]


{What privilege, [honor], and joy to participate in the final mass assault; to have helped liberate your country and the world from the hundred-headed dragon of war! To be [blessed] by countless generations as one of the [saviors] of mankind! Who would not serve such a cause gladly, eagerly, enthusiastically?}

If you are convinced that, short of a threat of immediate war, there is nothing so urgent than to end war and that all spare energies are needed to achieve this before another World War bursts on us, then become at once a [center] for vigorous propaganda. Here are some suggestions (mostly appropriate also for organizations.):

Reach, convince, and move those of your household and of your place of work, and others you come in touch with. Win over, not attack, those who are lukewarm, indifferent, or opposed. (Children, persuade your parents; parents, your children!) Write at once for 20 copies of this leaflet and form a growing group.

[Endeavor] to influence those who wield influence or power, by frequently repeated conversations, correspondence, visits, appeals, petitions, deputations, etc.; particularly bear in mind the organizations or bodies to which you belong. Members of Parliament, the clergy (more especially popular preachers), the press, and teachers in schools and universities. Also, persuade Secretaries of any kind of bodies, and editors, to write to headquarters for copies of this leaflet for their members or readers.

Have post cards, letter paper, and envelopes, with some artistic end-war design affixed or printed on (which we could provide); carry some peace emblem on the person; and every day, in meditation or prayer, renew and reinforce the resolve to battle unceasingly for the victory of hearty [cooperation] and organized justice in international affairs.

Keep peace day, fly peace flags, and induce all types of political and other organizations to adopt and promote the end-war platform. Private and public meetings, discussions, debates, and classes could be held, and imposing street demonstrations and pageants, with banners and songs, organized. Plan with others how to further the cause. Help to find organizers and to establish (where absent) influential end-war organizations in every place of work, village, [neighborhood], town, and province, with irresistibly strong headquarters in the Capital. Offer yourself for some post, humble or high. Aim at a hundred [percent] of active propagandists organized compactly in your end-war and other organizations, and make sure that your country is right in the van.

Support, to the full, and also help to strengthen, the League, including its splendid International [Labor] Organization.

Energetically promote, in conversation and otherwise, all subsidiary aims -- for example, international [cooperation] generally; fairness to other nations and to national, racial, and religious minorities; and internationally-minded patriotic press; the modernizing of history, geography, and civics teaching in the schools; the encouragement of non-discrimination and of free trade in commerce; visits and study abroad.

Especially in moments of crises strain single-mindedly every nerve to ensure a result [favorable] to present and lasting peace. All that you and your compatriots do for the World Campaign to End War should have ONE AIM: to provide that your Government forthwith and henceforth devotes its main energies to the realization of the [program] sketched on p. 3 and to win over other Governments to follow the same course.

If you, reader, are a politician, lawyer, preacher, journalist employers' or workers' leader, teacher, doctor, scientist, poet, playwright, novelist, musician, painter, speaker, or have otherwise power, then exercise INTENSIVELY your individual influence, induce your professional organization to aid the World Campaign for ending war, and contribute, besides, by your special abilities, to the success of the end-war propaganda. (Please offer to [cooperate].)

To encourage yourself and your fellows, send through National headquarters the following line: Please enter me for active service until January 1st, 1932. Send also suggestions, particularly if an experienced organizer.

Lastly, forward you (family) annual peace-offering -- for the monthly sheet, for other literature, and for home and world propaganda -- consisting of penny stamps equal to the number of weeks, half-weeks, days, or hours in the year. A million liberal (including some munificent) subscribers are needed at once to ensure the success of the Campaign. (British Bankers:)


[written along the edges of the page: "How beautiful are the feet of them who preach the gospel of peace." Stop war, and use the money saved for fighting disease, ignorance, distress. -- Peace organizations and peace workers of the world, unite for victory. Soldiers and munition workers of the last world war, concentrate on preventing the next world war! Needed for the World Campaign a million stalwarts to create a hundred million host and lead it triumphantly to swift and certain victory.]

No. 1. 18/3/24. {International Headquarters, Geneva Switzerland.}