Collated Criticisms of the Draft Resolution, April 1914



Not heard from:

Dr. Wise
Dr. Moore
Prof. Taylor
Miss Lathrop
Prof. Kent
Mr. Brandeis

Out of town.

Mr. Edison
Mrs. Glenn [page 2]



Dr. Van Hise (who was not present.) [page 3]


For an outgiving at this time:

Gavit, Adler, Balch, Devine, Howe, Holmes, Arnstetin, Kirchwey, Lovejoy, G. H. Mead, Wald, Williams.


Goodnow; "under present circumstances does not appeal to me as a useful or even a wise thing to do."

Eliot: "could have no possible effect either upon the duration of the war, or upon the terms of peace, no matter to whom it should be addressed -- to the American people, to the [combatants], or to all Europe".

Howells: see IV
Kelley: [see IV]
Mack: [see IV] [page 4]


1. Against this outgiving as a group statement:

Devine: Too individual to be signed by a group of persons; to bring it down to what they would jointly stand for would destroy it. [Maxfelt] Suggests issuance as individual statement drawn from conference. See memo.

Lindsay: "skeptical about wisdom of issuing public statement without more thorough [going] discussion and comparison of views than was possible at meeting" (see letter.)

Howells: "What we may now expect, and what I do devoutly hope for is the success of the Allies in the war which is fairly daunting the human soul". (see letter.)

Mrs. Kelley: "I am for concentrating on Hamilton Holt's scheme and not publishing anything else". (Will write letter.)

Miss Balch: sends new draft, enclosed, breaking away on new and simpler letter.

Mack: "I doubt the advisability of any concerted address at this time by the social workers.

2. For this outgiving:

Howe, Holmes, Williams and (see V) [page 5]


For a new draft, using this statement as a basis for their suggestions:


A. Declaration and Gettysburg

Omit: Gavit, Adler, Balch, G. H. Mead, Howe, Holmes, Arnstein, Lindsay, Kirchwey, Mack, Wald.

"Must be our own, and be based not upon the utterance of olden days, but upon the conviction of the present." <Holmes>

Use: Williams: "I feel that the use that you have made both of the Declaration and Gettysburg address is wise, not merely because of our own interest as Americans in these remarkable papers, but because, as far as I am aware, they constitute America's contribution to the great documents of the world, and they have met with a [reception] in other countries quite as unique as their [reception] here."

B. Protest against war.

Use: Gavit, Adler, Balch, Howe, Holmes, Arnstein, [Kirchwey], Lovejoy, Mack, Williams.

"This part should be condensed materially." (Arnstein)

"Sections IV and V are superb and should not be altered to any extent," Holmes.

"Analysis too fine; give sense of repetition to ordinary reader". [Kirchwey].

"Deals at greater length than necessary with war itself and affects on Europe." Lovejoy.

For condensation -- see draft copyread by J. P. Gavit.

Omit: Apparently this is ground for Goodnow's adverse judgement on putting out document -- "I am afraid that whatever we think with regard to this war it has gone so far that any attempt of this sort is futile."

Similarly, Eliot: "Peace does not seem to be to be desirable, until one party or the other shall have expressed a desire for the cessation of hostilities. A peace made now would yield no valuable results for the future."

C. Constructive proposals as to organization of peace;

Include: Gavit, Balch, Howe, Holmes, Lindsay, [Kirchwey], Williams, Anrstein. [page 6]

"Merely protest against war won't get anywhere", Gavit.

Query: would Goodnow, Eliot, Howells sign if limited to this aspect?

"Now that opinion of world is at last malleable, we must come forward with constructive proposals; everything else is series of obvious propositions which should lead up to them." [Kirchwey]

Exclude: Except in most general terms, warns against taking positions.  (See memo.) Adler, Mack.

6. Modify:

Mr. Devine felt "that presentment gave the impression that our record in the matter of war, race feeling, hatred, etc. was better than it was. We should make it clearer, like Mr. Wilson's pronouncement, that we are also guilty.

Modify so as not to seem to flaunt ourselves -- [Kirchwey]

[Emphasize] the reaction in our own country and its deepest social and spiritual interests. -- Lovejoy.


Shorten: Gavrit, Balch, Arnstein, Holmes, Holt, [Kirchwey], Lovejoy, Wald.

Less than 1000 words, Gavit; 1500, Holt; one-half present length, Holmes; one-fourth, [Kirchwey], Condense, Howe.

Let be: Would leave practically unaltered. "The very extent of the changes enforces the constructive suggestions." Williams.


Simplify: Gavit, Balch, Wald.

"Grind away last unnecessary phrase", Gavit.

"Make an absolutely simple, restrained, brief, hard-hitting statement". Balch.

Recommend: "some use of a file" -- Devine

"pruning process" -- Holmes

"I think that the document falls between two stools. It undertakes to be an impassioned appeal to the people of Europe and it becomes too detached and too reasoned for an impassioned appeal. If it is to be such it seems to me [page 7] that it should be much shorter and should be made up of short sentences giving our emotional attitude without the grounds and reasons. If the whole most admirable presentation is to be given it seems to me that the effort to keep the level of strong emotion must be abandoned, and that the power of the statement must come from the reasoned statement." G. H. Mead [page 8]


To whom addressed:

To all people: Gavit, Adler, [Kirchwey], Balch, Arnstein.

To social workers everywhere: Holt.

To American People: Mack. [page 9]


By whom:

Five or six unmistakable Americans: Gavit, Arnstein (the social group predominating), Lovejoy, G. H. Mead. (see VIII)

By social workers: (100 prominent ones sign it) Holt

By a small group representing the whole: [Kirchwey];

By 3 or 4, Mack. Mead (see VIII)

Individual statement of drafter: Devine, Lindsay.

By different groups: university men, lawyers, writers, social workers, labor men. As many of each as possible: Adler, Williams. (see letter.) [page 10]

VIII How given out.

See memo as to Associated Press, translations, etc. Gavit.

Should be reprinted in pamphlet for widespread distribution and translated. (see letter, Howe)

Could be handled as booklet; Macmillan would jump at such a chance -- Lindsay.

Emphasize <Emotional> appeal to press By 3 or 4 eminent unmistakable Americans; Reasoned statement in name of social workers. See V. G. Mead. [page 11]

IX Special suggestions.

See new draft by Miss Balch.